Basel Universität

Low Temperature Tuning Fork STM/AFM


Low Temperature STM/AFM

Our microscope is a low-temperature STM/AFM microscope (Omicron Nanotechnology GmbH) based on a tuning fork sensor in the qPlus configuration (stiffness of k = 1800 N/m, resonance frequency f0 = 26 kHz, Q factor up to 35000) The measurements are carried out at 5 K in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and operated with a Nanonis Specs OC4 system. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is performed in the non-contact mode using a phase lock loop (PLL). STM characterizations are typically done in the constant-current mode with the bias voltage applied to the tungsten tip. The system supports a load-lock chamber for fast sample introduction and a second chamber for sample preparations. In the preparation chamber, atomically-cleaned metals (Cu(111), Au(111), Au(110)) and large band-gap semiconductors (TiO2, SrTio3) as well as superconductors (NbSe2, Pb(110), Pb(111)) can be prepared by few cycles of sputtering/annealing or cleavage in UHV. Molecule depositions are done from a quartz crucible installed in the preparation chamber on substrates kept at temperatures from 100 K to 1000 K. Additionally, we have the capability to sublimate single-molecule on the surfaces contained in the microscope (5K deposition).



Force and current spectroscopy at the atomic-scale

Our group has a long-standing experience in developing the most advanced force and current spectroscopic methods, to give new insights into the mechanical, structural and electronic properties of single molecules at the atomic scale. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) is acquired with the standard lock in technique and helps determining the spatial distribution of the electronic states of single molecules (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbitals-HOMO and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbitals-LUMO). We perform AFM measurements in the non-contact mode by detecting the frequency shift variations, Δf, compared to the resonance frequency of the qPlus sensor. In this way, AFM images (Δf(x,y) maps) are obtained at constant height with a minimized bias voltage (≈ 300 µV) to avoid cross-talk effects between the force and current channels. Over the past years, we also focused on determining three-dimensional force field above single-molecules using atom-tracked positioning [1,2,3,4,7]. Based on either Δf(z) of Δf(V) spectroscopic curves (see (b-d)), the technique is now routinely employed to determine the mechanical properties of molecules as well as their charge redistribution at the sub-molecular scale[5,6,8].

(a) Cartoon of a 3D-force spectroscopic experiments. (b-d) Typical Δf(z) and Δf(V) spectroscopic curves and (c-e) typical I(z) and I(V) spectroscopic curves employed to extract the mechanical, strutcural and electronic properties of single molecules.


Publications related to this instrument:

Donor--Acceptor Properties of a Single-Molecule Altered by On-Surface Complex Formation
T. Meier, R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, Y. Geng, X. Liu, S. Decurtins, P. Hapala, A. Baratoff, S.-X. Liu, P. Jelinek, E. Meyer and Th. Glatzel
ACS Nano, (2017), pdf.
Direct quantitative measurement of the C═O⋅⋅⋅H–C bond by atomic force microscopy
S. Kawai, T. Nishiuchi, T. Kodama, P. Spijker, R. Pawlak, T. Meier, J. Tracey, T. Kubo, E. Meyer, A. S. Foster
Sci. Adv., 3 , (2017), pdf.
Single-molecule manipulation experiments to explore friction and adhesion
R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, T. Meier, Th. Glatzel, A. Baratoff, E. Meyer
J. Phys. D : App. Phys., (50), (2017), 113003 , pdf.
Design and Characterization of an Electrically Powered Single Molecule on Gold
R. Pawlak , T. Meier, N. Renaud, M. Kisiel, A. Hinaut, T. Glatzel, D. Sordes, C. Durand, W.-H. Soe, A. Baratoff, C. Joachim, C. E. Housecroft, E. C. Constable , Ernst Meyer
ACS Nano, (2017), pdf.
Hydroxyl-Induced Partial Charge States of Single Porphyrins on Titania Rutile
R. Pawlak, A. Sadeghi, R. Jöhr, A. Hinaut, T. Meier, S. Kawai, L. Zajac, P. Olszowski, S. Godlewski, B. Such, Th. Glatzel, S. Goedecker, M. Szymonski, E. Meyer
J. Phys. Chem. C, (121), (2017), 3607-3614, pdf.
Fast and Curious
R. Pawlak, T. Meier
Nat. Nanotechnol., (12 ), (2017), 712-712, pdf.
Manipulation and Imaging of Single Molecules by Atomic Force Microscopy
Th. Glatzel , R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, and E. Meyer
ATI Seminar, Advanced Technology Institute, 2016-03-15, Tokyo, (Japan).
Porphyrins on Titania
Th. Glatzel R. Jöhr, A. Hinaut, R. Pawlak, A. Sadeghi, S. Goedecker, S. Decurtins, E. Meyer, and
Kyoto Workshop on Recent Progress in Advanced Scanning Probe Techniques, 2016-03-10, Kyoto, (Japan).
Superlubricity of graphene nanoribbons on gold surfaces
S. Kawai, A. Benassi, E. Gnecco, H. Söde, R. Pawlak, X. Feng, K. Müllen, D. Passerone, C. A. Pignedoli, P. Ruffieux, R. Fasel, E. Meyer
Science, 351, (6276), (2016), 957, pdf.
Chemical Structures of Organometallic Intermediate and Carbon-carbon Bonds in on-surface Chemical Reaction.
S. Kawai, and A. Sadeghi, and T. Okamoto, and C. Mitsui, and R. Pawlak, and T. Meier, and J. Takeya, and S. Goedecker, and E. Meyer.
Small, (2016), pdf.
Configuring electronic states in an atomically precise array of quantum boxes.
S. Nowakowska, A. Wäckerlin, I. Piquero-Zulaica, J. Nowakowski, S. Kawai, C. Wäckerlin, M. Matena, T. Nijs, S. Fatayer, O. Popova, A. Ahsan, S. F. Mousavi, T. Ivas, E. Meyer, M. Stöhr, J. E. Ortega, J. Björk, L. H. Gade, J. Lobo-Checa, T. A. Jung
Small, 12, ( ), (2016), 3757-3763, pdf.
The Limits of Nobility in the van der Waals Interaction
S. Kawai, A. S. Foster, T. Björkman, S. Nowakowsaka, J. Björk, F. Federici Canova, L. H. Gade, T. A. Jung, and E. Meyer
Nature Communications, 7, (2016), 11559, pdf.
Single Molecule Tribology: Force Microscopy Manipulation of a Porphyrin Derivative on a Copper Surface
R. Pawlak, W. Ouyang, A. E. Filippov, L. Kalikhman-Razvozov, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, E. Gnecco, A. Baratoff , Q.-S. Zheng, O. Hod, M. Urbakh, E. Meyer
ACS Nano, 10, (2016), 713-722, pdf.
Probing Atomic Structure and Majorana Wavefunctions in Mono-Atomic Fe-chains on Superconducting Pb-Surface
R. Pawlak, M. Kisiel, J. Klinovaja, T. Meier, S. Kawai, Th. Glatzel, D. Loss, E. Meyer
npj Quantum Info, 2, (2016), 16035, pdf.
Single-Molecule Experiments to Explore Friction And Adhesion (Invited)
R. Pawlak , S. Kawai, A. Baratoff, W.G. Ouyang, T. Meier, E. Gnecco, T. Glatzel, A. Filippov, A. Baratoff, M. Urbakh, E. Meyer
AVS conference, 2015-10-22, San José, (US).
Probing Atomic Structure and Majorana Wavefunctions in Mono-Atomic Fe-chains on Superconducting Pb-Surface
R. Pawlak , M. Kisiel, J. Klinovaja, T. Meier, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, D. Loss, E. Meyer
Non contact atomic force microscopy conference 2015, 2015-09-14, Cassis, (France).
Probing Atomic Structure and Majorana Wavefunctions in Mono-Atomic Fe-chains on Superconducting Pb-Surface
R. Pawlak , M. Kisiel, J. Klinovaja, T. Meier, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, D. Loss, E. Meyer
8th International Workshop on Nanoscale Pattern Formation at Surfaces, 2015-07-16, Krakow, (Poland).
Manipulation of single molecules by NC-AFM
E. Meyer , S. Kawai, A. Baratoff, E. Gnecco, R. Pawlak, T. Meier, S. Freund, A. Hinaut, R. Jöhr, M. Kisiel, U. Gysin and Th. Glatzel
8th International Workshop on Nanoscale Pattern Formation at Surfaces, 2015-07-15, Krakow, (Poland), Abstract (PDF).
Controlled switching of a single CuPc molecule on Cu(111) at low temperature
Th. Glatzel S. Fremy, A. Sadeghi, R. Pawlak, A. Baratoff, S. Goedecker, E. Meyer, and
The International Conference on Understanding and Controlling Nano and Mesoscale Friction, 2015-06-26, Istanbul, (Turkey), Abstract (PDF).
Atomic-scale friction sensed by a single molecule
R. Pawlak , W. Ouyang, A.E. Filippov, L. Kalikhman, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, E. Gnecco, A. Baratoff, Q. Zheng, O. Hod, M. Urbakh, E. Meyer
COSTNanotribo, 2015-06-22, Istanbul, (Turkey).
Probing Atomic Structure and Majorana Wavefunctions in Mono-Atomic Fe-chains on Superconducting Pb-Surface
R. Pawlak, M. Kisiel, J. Klinovaja, T. Meier, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, D. Loss, E. Meyer
SwissNanoconvention2015, 2015-05-22, Neuchâtel, (Switzerland).
Probing Atomic Structure and Majorana Wavefunctions in Mono-Atomic Fe-chains on Superconducting Pb-Surface
R. Pawlak , M. Kisiel, J. Klinovaja, T. Meier, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, D. Loss, E. Meyer
Seminar (Max-Planck Institute), 2015-05-06, Stuttgart, (Germany).
Etude locale par STM/AFM de fermions de Majorana dans des fils supraconducteurs topologiques.
R. Pawlak , M. Kisiel, J. Klinovaja, T. Meier, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, D. Loss, E. Meyer
Forum des microscopies à sonde locale, 2015-03-20, Troyes, (France).
STM/AFM study of Majorana bound state in mono-atomic Fe chains on lead
R. Pawlak , M. Kisiel, J. Klinovaja, T. Meier, S. Kawai, Th. Glatzel, D. Loss, E. Meyer
International workshop High - resolution AFM/STM imaging, 2015-02-23, Prague, ( Czech Republic).
Interplay of weak interactions in the atom-by-atom condensation of xenon within quantum boxes
S. Nowakowska, A. Wäckerlin, S. Kawai, T. Ivas, J. Nowakowski, S. Fatayer, C. Wäckerlin, T. Nijs, E. Meyer, J. Björk, M. Stöhr, L. H. Gade, and T. A. Jung
Nature Communications, 6, (2015), 6071, pdf.
Extended Halogen Bonding between Fully Fluorinated Aromatic Molecules
S. Kawai, A. Sadeghi, F. Xu, L. Peng, A. Orita, J. Otera, S. Goedecker, and E. Meyer
ACS Nano, 9, (3), (2015), 2574–2583, pdf.
Chain-like structure elements in Ni40Ta60 metallic glasses observed by scanning tunneling microscopy
R. Pawlak, L. Marot, A. Sadeghi, S. Kawai, Th. Glatzel, P. Reimann, S. Goedecker, H.-J. Güntherodt, E. Meyer
Sci. Rep., 5, (2015), 13143, pdf.

R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, Th. Glatzel, and E. Meyer
Edited by Springer Japan, vol. 3, (Chap. 11), (2015), 195-222, pdf.
"Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Single Molecules" in Imaging and Manipulation of Adsorbates Using Dynamic Force Microscopy (Eds. P. Moriarty and S. Gauthier)
Th. Glatzel
Springer, (Chap. 2), (2015), 25-47, pdf.
Resolving Atomic Connectivity in Graphene Nanostructure Junctions
T. Dienel, S. Kawai, H. Söde, X. Feng, K. Müllen, P. Ruffieux, R. Fasel, and O. Gröning
Nano Lett., 15, (8), (2015), 5185-5190, pdf.
Atomically controlled substitutional boron-doping of graphene nanoribbons
S. Kawai, S. Saito, S. Osumi, S. Yamaguchi, A. S. Foster, P. Spijker, and E. Meyer
Nature Communications, 6, (2015), 8098, pdf.
Atomic-scale friction sensed by a single molecule
R. Pawlak , W. Ouyang, A.E. Filippov, L. Kalikhman, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, E. Gnecco, A. Baratoff, Q. Zheng, O. Hod, M. Urbakh, E. Meyer
ncAFM2014, 2014-08-08, Tsukuba, (Japan).
Local Detection of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in a Nanodiamond Monolayer
R. Pawlak , Th. Glatzel, V. Pichot, L. Schmidlin, S. Kawai,S. Fremy, D. Spitzer, E. Meyer
ncAFM2014, 2014-08-01, Tsukuba, (Japan).
Chain-like structure elements in Ni40Ta60 metallic glasses observed by scanning tunneling microscopy
R. Pawlak , L. Marot, A. Sadeghi, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, P. Reimann, S. Goedecker, H.-J. Güntherodt, E. Meyer
eMRS, 2014-07-15, Warsow, (Poland).
Charge distribution of a single CuPc molecule on NaCl and Cu(111)
Th. Glatzel S. Fremy, A. Sadeghi, R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, S. Goedecker, E. Meyer, A. Baratoff, and
nc-AFM 2014, 2014-07-08, Tsukuba, (Japan), Abstract (PDF).
Chain-like structure elements in Ni40Ta60 metallic glasses observed by scanning tunneling microscopy
R. Pawlak , L. Marot, A. Sadeghi, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, P. Reimann, S. Goedecker, H.-J. Güntherodt, E. Meyer
NanoManipulation Workshop, 2014-06-18, Mulhouse, (France).

R. Pawlak
CNRS Interview, 2014-05-22, Paris, (France).
Manipulation and Imaging of Single Molecules by Atomic Force Microscopy
Th. Glatzel , R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, S. Fremy, A. Hinout, and E. Meyer
Nano and Giga Challenges in Electronics, Photonics and Renewable Energy, 2014-03-14, Phoenix, (US), Abstract (PDF).
ultrahigh resolution atomic force microscopy: seeing the structure of molecule
S. Kawai
応用物理(OYO BUTURI), 83, (6), (2014), 490-482, pdf.
Quantifying the atomic-level mechanics of single long physisorbed molecular chains
S. Kawai, M. Koch, E. Gnecco, A. Sadeghi, R. Pawlak, Th. Glatzel, J. Schwarz, S. Goedecker, S. Hecht, A. Baratoff, L. Grill, and E. Meyer
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, (11), (2014), 3968–3972, pdf.
Image distortions of partly fluorinated hydrocarbons in atomic force microscopy with carbon monoxide terminated tips
N. Moll, B. Schuler, S. Kawai, F. Xu, L. Peng, A. Orita, J. Otera, A. Curioni, M. Neu, J. Repp, G. Meyer, and L. Gross
Nano Lett., 14, (11), (2014), 6127–6131, pdf.
Correction to Obtaining Detailed Structural Information about Supramolecular Systems on Surfaces by Combining High-Resolution Force Microscopy with ab Initio Calculations
S. Kawai, A. Sadeghi, F. Xu, L. Peng, R. Pawlak, T. Glatzel, A. Willand, A. Orita, J. Otera, S. Goedecker, and E. Meyer
ACS Nano, 8, (3), (2014), 3099, pdf.
Local Detection of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in a Nanodiamond Monolayer
R. Pawlak, Th. Glatzel, V. Pichot, L. Schmidlin, S. Kawai,S. Fremy, D. Spitzer, E. Meyer
Nano Lett., 13, (2013), 5803-5807, pdf.
Obtaining Detailed Structural Information about Supramolecular Systems on Surfaces by Combining High-Resolution Force Microscopy with ab initio Calculations
S. Kawai, A. Sadeghi, X. Feng, P. Lifen, R. Pawlak, T. Glatzel, A. Willand, A. Orita, J. Otera, S. Goedecker, and E. Meyer
ACS Nano, 7, (10), (2013), 9098, pdf.
Two-dimensional nanodiamond monolayers deposited by combined ultracentrifugation and electrophoresis techniques
L. Schmidlin, V. Pichot, S. Josset, R. Pawlak, T. Glatzel, S. Kawai, E. Meyer, and D. Spitzer
Appl. Phys. Lett., 101, (2012), 253111, pdf.
Interplay of the tip-sample junction stability and image contrast reversal on a Cu(111) surface revealed by the 3D force field
B. Such, T. Glatzel, S. Kawai, E. Meyer, R. Turansky, J. Brndiar and I. Stich
Nanotechnology, 23, (2012), 045705, pdf.
High-resolution imaging of C60 molecules using tuning-fork-based non-contact atomic force microscopy
R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, S. Fremy, T. Glatzel and E. Meyer
J. Phys.: Cond. Matter, (24), (2012), 084005, pdf.
Three-dimensional dynamic force spectroscopy measurements on KBr(001): atomic deformations at small tip-sample separations
S. Fremy, S. Kawai, R. Pawlak, Th. Glatzel, A. Baratoff and E. Meyer
Nanotechnology, 23, (2012), 055401, pdf.
Directed rotations of single porphyrin molecules controlled by localized force spectroscopy
R. Pawlak, S. Fremy, S. Kawai, T. Glatzel, H. Fang, L.-A. Fendt, F. Diederich, and E. Meyer
ACS Nano, 6, (2012), 6318–6324, pdf.
Atomic-scale mechanical properties of orientated C60 molecules revealed by noncontact atomic force microscopy
R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, S. Fremy, T. Glatzel and E. Meyer
ACS Nano, 5, (8), (2011), :6349-54, pdf.
Three-dimensional force spectroscopy of KBr(001) by tuning fork-based cryogenic noncontact atomic force microscopy
B. Such, Th. Glatzel, S. Kawai, S. Koch, and E. Meyer
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 28, (3), (2010), C4B1, pdf.