Basel Universität

2D layered Materials




Pure hydrogen low temperature plasma exposure of HOPG and graphene:
Graphane formation?

Graphane offers a brand new playground for physicists and engineers, particularly as a prospect for two dimensional electronic applications. A new perspective is the chemical modification of graphene, especially the incisive idea of attaching atomic hydrogen to both sides of the graphene lattice to produce graphane , an sp3-hybridized insulating derivative of graphene. To achieve this, we exposed single and multilayer graphene as well as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) to a pure hydrogen low temperature plasma (LTP). Our photoemission measurement shows that hydrogen LTP exposed HOPG has a diamond-like valence band structure, which anticipates graphane formation. Wit scanning tunneling microscopy, various atomic-scale charge density patterns were observed which might be associated with different C-H conformers of graphane. A very low defect density was also observed which enables a reverse transformation to graphene. Hydrogen LTP exposed HOPG possesses a high thermal stability, and therefore, this transformation requires annealing over 1000°C. This work has been done in collaboration with the group of Prof. D. Zumbühl of the Basel Universität.

See our publication in Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology and the thesis of Dr. Baran Eren (link)

Figure: UV-photoemission spectra obtained before and after hydrogen plasma exposure on HOPG. The image shows a STM picture acquired after the plasma exposure.



UHV RT AFM is used to study graphene grown on Ru sample.

The mechanical behavior of a periodically buckled graphene membrane has been investigated by noncontact atomic force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum. When a graphene monolayer is grown on Ru(0001), a regular arrangement of 0.075 nm high nanodomes forming a honeycomb lattice with 3 nm periodicity forms spontaneously. This structure responds in a perfectly reversible way to relative normal displacements up to 0.12 nm. Indeed, the elasticity of the nanodomes is proven by realistic DFT calculations, with an estimated normal stiffness k ≈ 40 N/m. Our observations extend previous results on macroscopic graphene samples and confirm that the elastic behavior of this material is maintained down to nanometer length scales, which is important for the development of new high-frequency (terahertz) electromechanical devices.



Publications related to this research topic:

The effect of alkali halides on graphene grown on Cu(111), intercalation and boundary effects
M. Schulzendorf , A. Hinaut, T. Glatzel, S. Kawai, R. Jöhr, R. Pawlak, M. C. Righi, J. Zhang, M. Muntwiler and E. Meyer
SNI annual meeting, 2017-09-07, Lenzerheide, (Switzerland).
Decoupling of graphene by KBr intercalation on Cu(111)
M. Schulzendorf , A. Hinaut, Th. Glatzel, S. Kawai, R. Jöhr, R. Pawlak, J. Zhang, M. Muntwiler and E. Meyer
Nano in the Snow 2017, 2017-01-25, Schwarzsee, (Switzerland).
Decoupling of graphene by KBr intercalation on Cu(111)
M. Schulzendorf , A. Hinaut, Th. Glatzel, R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, J. Zhang, M. Muntwiler, E. Meyer
SNI annual meeting 2016, 2016-09-15, Lenzerheide, (Switzerland).
Decoupling of graphene by KBr intercalation on Cu(111)
M. Schulzendorf , A. Hinaut, Th. Glatzel, R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, J. Zhang, M. Muntwiler, E. Meyer
Swiss Nano Convention 2016, 2016-06-30, Basel, (Switzerland).
Tip induced ordering of organic layered crystals
M. Schulzendorf , G. Fessler, Th. Glatzel, M. Meuwly, L. Shi-Xia, S. Decurtins, E. Meyer
SNI PhD School: Seminar on Rhetoric and Communication Skills, 2016-06-06, Mariastein, (Switzerland).
Decoupling of graphene by KBr intercalation on Cu(111)
M. Schulzendorf , A. Hinaut, Th. Glatzel, R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, J. Zhang, M. Muntwiler, E. Meyer
Nano in the Snow 2016, 2016-01-27, Zinal, (Switzerland).
Work function of few layer graphene covered nickel thin films measured with Kelvin probe force microscopy
B. Eren, U. Gysin, L. Marot, Th. Glatzel, R. Steiner, E. Meyer
Appl. Phys. Lett, 108, (2016), 041602, pdf.
Superlubricity of graphene nanoribbons on gold surfaces
S. Kawai, A. Benassi, E. Gnecco, H. Söde, R. Pawlak, X. Feng, K. Müllen, D. Passerone, C. A. Pignedoli, P. Ruffieux, R. Fasel, E. Meyer
Science, 351, (6276), (2016), 957, pdf.
Nanomanipulation of C60 islands on organic layer compound crystals
Th. Glatzel S. Freund, G. Fessler, A. Hinaut, R. Pawlak, S.-X. Liu, S. Decurtins, E. Meyer and
6th European Nanomanipulation Workshop, 2015-09-24, Giessen, (Germany), Abstract (PDF).
Changing the electronic properties of graphene by alkali halides on Cu(111)
M. Schulzendorf, A. Hinaut, Th. Glatzel, S Kawai , R Jöhr, J. Zhang, M. Muntwiler, E. Meyer
SNI annual meeting 2015, 2015-09-03, Lenzerheide, (Switzerland), Abstract (PDF).
Manipulation of single molecules by NC-AFM
E. Meyer , S. Kawai, A. Baratoff, E. Gnecco, R. Pawlak, T. Meier, S. Freund, A. Hinaut, R. Jöhr, M. Kisiel, U. Gysin and Th. Glatzel
8th International Workshop on Nanoscale Pattern Formation at Surfaces, 2015-07-15, Krakow, (Poland), Abstract (PDF).
Intricacies Of Moiré Patterns At The Atomic Level: A Scanning Probe Microscopy Perspective
D. Yildiz, M. Kisiel, O. Gurlu, and E. Meyer
Ecotrib2015, 2015-06-25, Lugano, (Switzerland).
Investigation Of Morphological And Electronic Properties Of Moiré Patterns By Scanning Probe Microscopy
D. Yildiz, M. Kisiel, O. Gurlu, and E. Meyer
The International Conference on Understanding and Controlling Nano and Mesoscale Friction, 2015-06-24, Istanbul, (Turkey).
Investigation Of Morphological And Electronic Properties Of Moiré Patterns By Scanning Probe Microscopy
D. Yildiz, M. Kisiel, O. Gurlu, and E. Meyer
Swiss Nano Convention 2015, 2015-05-27, Neuchâtel, (Switzerland).
Change in graphene´s work function on alkali halide deposition on Cu(111)
M. Schulzendorf , A. Hinaut, Th. Glatzel, R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, J. Zhang, M. Muntwiler, E. Meyer
Swiss Nano Convention 2015, 2015-05-27, Neuchâtel, (Switzerland).
Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) study of moiré patterns on rotated graphene layer on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG)
D. Yildiz , S. Sen, M. Kisiel, O. Gulseren, E. Meyer, and O. Gurlu
DPG Spring Meeting, 2015-03-19, Berlin, (Germany).
Change in graphene’s work function on alkali halide deposition on Cu(111)
M. Schulzendorf , A. Hinaut, Th. Glatzel, R. Pawlak, S. Kawai, J. Zhang, M. Muntwiler, E. Meyer
SNI Nano in the Snow, 2015-01-21, Belalp, (Switzerland), Abstract (PDF).
Atomically controlled substitutional boron-doping of graphene nanoribbons
S. Kawai, S. Saito, S. Osumi, S. Yamaguchi, A. S. Foster, P. Spijker, and E. Meyer
Nature Communications, 6, (2015), 8098, pdf.
Resolving Atomic Connectivity in Graphene Nanostructure Junctions
T. Dienel, S. Kawai, H. Söde, X. Feng, K. Müllen, P. Ruffieux, R. Fasel, and O. Gröning
Nano Lett., 15, (8), (2015), 5185-5190, pdf.
Spectroscopic ellipsometry on Si/SiO2/graphene tri-layer system exposed to downstream hydrogen plasma: Effects of hydrogenation and chemical sputtering
B. Eren, W. Fu, L. Marot, M. Calame, R. Steiner, E. Meyer
Applied Physics Letters, 106 , (2015), 011904, pdf.
Graphene islands on Cu(111) studied by KPFM
M. Schulzendorf, A. Hinaut, Th. Glatzel, S. Kawai and E. Meyer
SNI annual meeting 2014, 2014-09-11, Lenzerheide, (Switzerland).
Giant frictional dissipation peaks and charge-density-wave slips at the NbSe2 surface
M. Langer, M. Kisiel, R. Pawlak, F. Pelligrini, G. E. Santoro, R. Buzio, A. Gerbi, G. Balakrishnan, A. Baratoff, E. Tosatti, E. Meyer
Nature Materials, 13, (2014), 173-177, pdf.
Graphene Synthesis viaThermal Polymerization of Aromatic Quinone Molecules
S. Kawai, B. Eren, L. Marot, E. Meyer
ACS Nano, 8, (6), (2014), 5932–5938, pdf.
Elastic Response of Graphene Nanodomes
S. Koch, D. Stradi, E. Gnecco, S. Barja, S. Kawai, C. Díaz, M. Alcamí, F. Martín, A. L. V. de Parga, R. Miranda, Th. Glatzel, and E. Meyer
ACS Nano, 7, (4), (2013), 2927, pdf.
Hydrogen plasma microlithography of graphene supported on a Si/SiO2 substrate
B. Eren, Th. Glatzel, M. Kisiel, W. Fu, R. Pawlak, U. Gysin, C. Nef, L. Marot, M. Calame, Ch. Schönenberger, E. Meyer
Appl. Phys. Lett., 102, (2013), 071602, pdf.
2D Scanning Force Spectroscopy on Organic Layer Crystals
M. Schulzendorf , G. Fessler, S. Kawai, Th. Glatzel, S. Liu, and S. Decurtins
76th Annual Meeting of the DPG and DPG Spring Meeting, 2012-03-28, Berlin, (Germany).
Contrast inversion of the h-BN nanomesh investigated by nc-AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy
S. Koch, M. Langer, S. Kawai, E. Meyer and Th. Glatzel
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 24, (2012), 314212, pdf.
Pure hydrogen low-temperature plasma exposure of HOPG and graphene: Graphane formation?
B. Eren, D. Hug, L. Marot, R. Pawlak, M. Kisiel, R. Steiner, D. M. Zumbühl, E. Meyer
Beilstein J. Nanotech., 3, (2012), 852–9, pdf.
Ultrasensitive detection of lateral atomic-scale interactions on graphite (0001) via bimodal dynamic force measurements
S. Kawai, Th. Glatzel, S. Koch, B. Such, A. Baratoff, and E. Meyer
Phys. Rev. B, 81, (8), (2010), 085420, pdf.