Basel Universität

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), is a widely used surface analysis technique because of its relative simplicity in use and data interpretation. The sample is irradiated with mono-energetic X-rays causing photoelectrons to be emitted from the sample surface. An electron energy analyzer determines the binding energy of the photoelectrons. From the binding energy and intensity of a photoelectron peak, the elemental identity, chemical state, and quantity of an element are determined.
The information XPS provides about surface layers or thin film structures is of value in many industrial applications including: polymer surface modification, catalysis, corrosion, adhesion, semiconductor and dielectric materials, electronics packaging, magnetic media, and thin film coatings used in a number of industries.
The main research interests include general surface physics, determination of the electronic structure of condensed matter, deposition and characterization of metal nanoparticles and thin film technology. A specific project is the determination of the growth mechanism of nanotubes (CNT) grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), and the study of the electronic structure of CNTs and embedded them in a film.
Currently, we have the capability to achieve single or double side hydrogenation of graphene as well anisotropic etching. Especially, double side hydrogenation of graphene is a recent topic of interest, since hydrogen bonding can saturate the delocalized electrons; thus changing graphene from a semi-metal to a semi-conductor. We are aiming to provide a fundamental understanding to electronic, chemical and mechanical properties of this novel material, which is foreseen to be one of the building blocks of two dimensional and all-carbon transistors and NEMS devices.

Publications related to this research topic:

Surface chemistry of rare-earth oxide surfaces at ambient conditions: reactions with water and hydrocarbons
Elcin Kuelah, Laurent Marot, Roland Steiner, Andriy Romanyuk, Thomas A Jung, Aneliia Waeckerlin, Ernst Meyer
Scientific Reports, 7, (2017), 43369, pdf.
Cleaning of first mirrors in ITER by means of radio frequency discharges
F. Leipold, R. Reichle, C. Vorpahl, E. E. Mukhin, A. M. Dmitriev, A. G. Razdobarin, D. S. Samsonov, L. Marot , L. Moser, R. Steiner, E. Meyer
Review of Scientific Instruments, 87, (2016), 11D439, pdf.
Understanding the formation of aligned, linear arrays of Ag nanoparticles
RM. Walliser, R. Tóth, I. Lagzi, D. Mathys, L. Marot, A. Braun, CE. Housecroft, EC. Constable
RSC Adv, 6, (2016), 28388, pdf.
ITER perspective on fusion reactor diagnostics - A spectroscopic view
M.F.M. De Bock, R. Barnsley, M. Bassan, L. Bertalot, B. Brichard, I.M. Bukreev, J.M. Drevon, F. Le Guern, R. Hutton, M. Ivantsivskiy, H.G. Lee, F. Leipold, P. Maquet, L. Marot, V. Martin, P. Mertens, A. Mokeev, L. Moser, E.E. Mukhin, S. Pak, A.G. Razdobarin, R. Reichle, C.R. Seon, F. Seyvet, S. Simrock, V. Udintsev, G. Vayakis and C. Vorpahl
Journal of Instrumentation , (11.08 ), (2016), P08010, pdf.
ITER first mirror mock-ups exposed in Magnum-PSI
L. Marot, G. De Temmerman, M.A. van den Berg, P.-O. Renault, G. Covarel, M. Joanny, J.M. Travère, R. Steiner, D. Mathys and E. Meyer
Nuclear Fusion, 56, (2016), 066015, pdf.
Plasma cleaning of ITER First Mirrors in magnetic field
L. Moser, R. Steiner, F. Leipold, R. Reichle, L. Marot, E. Meyer
Journal of Nuclear Materials, (2015), pdf.
Towards plasma cleaning of ITER first mirrors
L. Moser, L. Marot, B. Eren, R. Steiner, D. Mathys, F. Leipold, R. Reichle, E. Meyer
Nuclear Fusion, 55, (2015), 063020, pdf.
Surface Modifications Induced by High Fluxes of Low Energy Helium Ions
İ. Tanyeli, L. Marot, D. Mathys, MCM. van de Sanden, G. De Temmerman
Scientific reports, 5, (2015), 9779, pdf.
Morphological changes of tungsten surfaces by low-flux helium plasma treatment and helium incorporation via magnetron sputtering.
S. Iyyakkunnel, L. Marot, B. Eren, R. Steiner, L. Moser, D. Mathys, M. Dueggelin, P. Chapon, E. Meyer
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, (2014), pdf.
Deuterium plasma exposure of rhodium films: Role of morphology and crystal structure
A. Uccello, B. Eren, L. Marot, D. Dellasega, A. Maffini, R. Steiner, D. Mathys, E. Meyer, M. Passoni
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 446, (2014), 106–112, pdf.
Laser-assisted cleaning of beryllium-containing mirror samples from JET and PISCES-B
M. Wisse, L. Marot, A. Widdowson, M. Rubel, D. Ivanova, P. Petersson, R.P. Doerner, M.J. Baldwin, J. Likonen, E. Alves, A. Hakola, S. Koivuranta, R. Steiner, E. Meyer
Fusion Engineering and Design, 89, (2014), 122–130, pdf.
Graphene Synthesis viaThermal Polymerization of Aromatic Quinone Molecules
S. Kawai, B. Eren, L. Marot, E. Meyer
ACS Nano, 8, (6), (2014), 5932–5938, pdf.
Nanostructuring of Iron Surfaces by Low-Energy Helium Ions
I. Tanyeli, L. Marot, M.C.M. van de Sanden, G. De Temmerman
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6, (2014), 3462−3468, pdf.
Pico- and nanosecond laser ablation of mixed tungsten / aluminium films
M. Wisse, L. Marot, R. Steiner, D. Mathys, A. Stumpp, M. Joanny, J. M. Travere, E. Meyer
Fusion Science and Technology, (2014), pdf.
Carbon nanotube growth on AlN support: Comparison between Ni and Fe chemical states and morphology
B. Eren, L. Marot, R. Steiner, T. de los Arcos, M. Düggelin, D. Mathys, K. N. Goldie, V. Olivieri, E. Meyer
Chemical Physics Letters, 609, (2014), 82–87, pdf.
An overview of the comprehensive First Mirror Test in JET with ITER-like wall
D. Ivanova, M. Rubel, A. Widdowson, P. Petersson, J. Likonen, L. Marot, E. Alves, A. Garcia-Carrasco, G. Pintsuk and JET-EFDA Contributors
Physica Scripta, T159, (2014), 014011, pdf.
Hydrogen plasma microlithography of graphene supported on a Si/SiO2 substrate
B. Eren, Th. Glatzel, M. Kisiel, W. Fu, R. Pawlak, U. Gysin, C. Nef, L. Marot, M. Calame, Ch. Schönenberger, E. Meyer
Appl. Phys. Lett., 102, (2013), 071602, pdf.
Helium effects on tungsten under fusion-relevant plasma loading conditions
G. De Temmerman, K. Bystrov, R.P. Doerner, L. Marot, G.M. Wright, K.B. Woller, D.G. Whyte, J.J. Zielinski
J. Nucl. Mater., 438, (2013), S78–S83, pdf.
Can aluminium or magnesium be a surrogate for beryllium: A critical investigation of their chemistry
L. Marot, C. Linsmeier, B. Eren, L. Moser, R. Steiner, E. Meyer
Fusion Eng. Des., 88, (2013), 1718–21, pdf.
Reduced damage threshold for tungsten using combined steady state and transient sources
T.W. Morgan, J.J. Zielinski, B.J. Hensen, H.Y. Xu, L. Marot, G. De Temmerman
J. Nucl. Mater., 438, (2013), S784–S787, pdf.
Performances of Rh and Mo mirrors under JET exposure
L. Marot, E. Meyer, M. Rubel, D. Ivanova, A. Widdowson, J.P. Coad, J. Likonen, A. Hakola, S. Koivuranta, G. De Temmerman, JET-EFDA Contributors
J. Nucl. Mater., 438, (2013), S1187–S1191, pdf.
Assessment of cleaning methods for first mirrors tested in JET for ITER
D. Ivanova, A. Widdowson, J. Likonen, L. Marot, S. Koivuranta, J.P. Coad, M. Rubel, P. Petersson, G. De Temmerman, JET-EFDA Contributors
J. Nucl. Mater, 438, (2013), S1241–S1244, pdf.
Laser damage thresholds of ITER mirror materials and first results on in situ laser cleaning of stainless steel mirrors
M. Wisse, L. Marot, B. Eren, R. Steiner, D. Mathys, E. Meyer
Fusion Eng. Des., 88, (2013), 388-99, pdf.
Thermo-mechanical analysis of ITER first mirrors and its use for the ITER equatorial visible/infrared wide angle viewing system optical design
M. Joanny, S. Salasca, M. Dapena, B. Cantone, J. M. Travère, C. Thellier, J. J. Fermé, L. Marot, O. Buravand, G. Perrollaz, and C. Zeile
Rev Sci Instrum, 83, (2012), 10E506, pdf.
The ITER VIS/IR Wide Angle Viewing System: Challenges and On-going R&D
J.M. Travere, M.H. Aumeunier, M. Joanny, M. Jouve, V. Martin, V. Moncada, S. Salasca, L. Marot, D. Chabaud, J.J. Fermé, F. Brémond, M. Thonnat
Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation Measurement Methods , (2012), pdf.
The ITER Thomson scattering core LIDAR diagnostic
G.A. Naylor, R. Scannell, M. Beurskens, M.J. Walsh, I. Pastor, A.J.H. Donné, B. Snijders, W. Biel, B. Meszaros, L. Giudicotti, R. Pasqualotto and L. Marot
Journal of Instrumentation, 7, (2012), C03043, pdf.
Characterization of hydrocarbon and mixed layers in TEXTOR by laser induced ablation spectroscopy
N. Gierse,, S Brezinsek, T. F. Giesen, A. Huber, M. Laengner, R. Leyte-Gonzales, L. Marot, E. Meyer, S. Möller, M. Naiim-Habib, V. Philipps, A. Pospieszczyk, B. Schweer, G. Sergienko, M. Zlobinski, U. Samm and the TEXTOR team
Phys. Scr., T145, (2011),  014026, pdf.
Overview of the Second Stage in the Comprehensive Mirrors test in Jet
M. Rubel, D. Ivanova, J.P. Coad, G. De Temmerman, J. Likonen, L. Marot, A. Schmidt, A. Widdowson
Physica Scripta, T145, (2011), 014070, pdf.