Basel Universität


Fusion: Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials

In a fusion reactor, and especially in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), knowledge of the plasma parameters is of highest interest to control and understand the performances of such a device. In today's tokamaks, the plasma is viewed through optical windows or fibre optics for many diagnostics. However, the high level of radiation expected in ITER will render this conventional approach impossible.
Metallic mirrors will be used either as plasma-facing components or as light transmitter through a labyrinth, and therefore the first mirror (FM) will be one of the most critical elements of ITER diagnostics systems. It must survive in an extreme environment (intense UV and X-rays radiation as well as particle fluxes due to charge exchange neutrals) and has to maintain a good optical performance.
In Basel, research is focused on the investigation of the erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for first mirrors of ITER both by active collaborations with groups from different Tokamak sites and by simulation in laboratory experiments. Another part is the preparation of metallic coated mirrors by magnetron sputtering or evaporation, to obtain nanometric crystallites films, like rhodium or molybdenum, with a high reflectivity.

The last topic is to study the interaction of the first wall (tungsten) of fusion reactor with several plasma especially for DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Plant).
Cleaning of mirrors either by plasma or laser is also investigated.

University of Basel News: Saubere Spiegel für den Fusionsreaktor, April 2015

ITER newline: Testing cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors, April 2015.

Energy research and innovation Report 2013 - page 24 (in englich) link to pdf 1.

Energieforschung und Innovation Bericht 2013 - page 24 (in german) link to pdf 2.

Recherche énergétique et innovation Rapport 2013 -(in french) page 24 link to pdf 3.

Article in "Baslerstab", 28th of April 2011 (in german) part 1 and part 2 4/5.

Article in "Schweizerische Technische Zeitschrift", April 2011 (in german) STZ link to pdf 6.

Article in "Technica Fusion", December 2010 (in german) Technica Fusion Dez 2010 link to pdf 7.

Article in "Basler Zeitung", 9th of July 2010 (in german) BaZ link to pdf 8.

Publications related to this research topic:

In situ cleaning of diagnostic first mirrors: an experimental comparison between plasma and laser cleaning in ITER-relevant conditions
A Maffini, L Moser, L Marot, R Steiner, D Dellasega, A Uccello, E Meyer, M Passoni
Nuclear Fusion, 57, (4), (2017), 046014, pdf.
Plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET
Alvaro Garcia-Carrasco, P Petersson, M Rubel, A Widdowson, E Fortuna-Zalesna, S Jachmich, M Brix, L Marot, JET Contributors
Nuclear Materials and Energy, (2017), pdf.
Plasma cleaning of beryllium coated mirrors
L. Moser, L. Marot, R. Steiner, M. Newman, A. Widdowsonr2, D. Ivanova, J. Likonen, P. Petersson, G. Pintsuk, M. Rubel, E. Meyer and JET Contributors
Physica Scripta, T167, (2016), 014069, pdf.
ITER perspective on fusion reactor diagnostics - A spectroscopic view
M.F.M. De Bock, R. Barnsley, M. Bassan, L. Bertalot, B. Brichard, I.M. Bukreev, J.M. Drevon, F. Le Guern, R. Hutton, M. Ivantsivskiy, H.G. Lee, F. Leipold, P. Maquet, L. Marot, V. Martin, P. Mertens, A. Mokeev, L. Moser, E.E. Mukhin, S. Pak, A.G. Razdobarin, R. Reichle, C.R. Seon, F. Seyvet, S. Simrock, V. Udintsev, G. Vayakis and C. Vorpahl
Journal of Instrumentation , (11.08 ), (2016), P08010, pdf.
ITER first mirror mock-ups exposed in Magnum-PSI
L. Marot, G. De Temmerman, M.A. van den Berg, P.-O. Renault, G. Covarel, M. Joanny, J.M. Travère, R. Steiner, D. Mathys and E. Meyer
Nuclear Fusion, 56, (2016), 066015, pdf.
Cleaning of first mirrors in ITER by means of radio frequency discharges
F. Leipold, R. Reichle, C. Vorpahl, E. E. Mukhin, A. M. Dmitriev, A. G. Razdobarin, D. S. Samsonov, L. Marot , L. Moser, R. Steiner, E. Meyer
Review of Scientific Instruments, 87, (2016), 11D439, pdf.
Plasma cleaning of ITER First Mirrors in magnetic field
L. Moser, R. Steiner, F. Leipold, R. Reichle, L. Marot, E. Meyer
Journal of Nuclear Materials, (2015), pdf.
Surface Modifications Induced by High Fluxes of Low Energy Helium Ions
İ. Tanyeli, L. Marot, D. Mathys, MCM. van de Sanden, G. De Temmerman
Scientific reports, 5, (2015), 9779, pdf.
Optical Coatings as Mirrors for Optical Diagnostics
L. Marot, G. Arnoux, A. Huber, V. Huber, Ph. Mertens, G. Sergienko, E. Meyer and J.E.T. Contributors
Journal of Coating Science and Technology, 2, (2015), 72-78, pdf.
Towards plasma cleaning of ITER first mirrors
L. Moser, L. Marot, B. Eren, R. Steiner, D. Mathys, F. Leipold, R. Reichle, E. Meyer
Nuclear Fusion, 55, (2015), 063020, pdf.
Nanostructuring of Iron Surfaces by Low-Energy Helium Ions
I. Tanyeli, L. Marot, M.C.M. van de Sanden, G. De Temmerman
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6, (2014), 3462−3468, pdf.
Pico- and nanosecond laser ablation of mixed tungsten / aluminium films
M. Wisse, L. Marot, R. Steiner, D. Mathys, A. Stumpp, M. Joanny, J. M. Travere, E. Meyer
Fusion Science and Technology, (2014), pdf.
An overview of the comprehensive First Mirror Test in JET with ITER-like wall
D. Ivanova, M. Rubel, A. Widdowson, P. Petersson, J. Likonen, L. Marot, E. Alves, A. Garcia-Carrasco, G. Pintsuk and JET-EFDA Contributors
Physica Scripta, T159, (2014), 014011, pdf.
Morphological changes of tungsten surfaces by low-flux helium plasma treatment and helium incorporation via magnetron sputtering.
S. Iyyakkunnel, L. Marot, B. Eren, R. Steiner, L. Moser, D. Mathys, M. Dueggelin, P. Chapon, E. Meyer
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, (2014), pdf.
Deuterium plasma exposure of rhodium films: Role of morphology and crystal structure
A. Uccello, B. Eren, L. Marot, D. Dellasega, A. Maffini, R. Steiner, D. Mathys, E. Meyer, M. Passoni
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 446, (2014), 106–112, pdf.
Laser-assisted cleaning of beryllium-containing mirror samples from JET and PISCES-B
M. Wisse, L. Marot, A. Widdowson, M. Rubel, D. Ivanova, P. Petersson, R.P. Doerner, M.J. Baldwin, J. Likonen, E. Alves, A. Hakola, S. Koivuranta, R. Steiner, E. Meyer
Fusion Engineering and Design, 89, (2014), 122–130, pdf.
Performances of Rh and Mo mirrors under JET exposure
L. Marot, E. Meyer, M. Rubel, D. Ivanova, A. Widdowson, J.P. Coad, J. Likonen, A. Hakola, S. Koivuranta, G. De Temmerman, JET-EFDA Contributors
J. Nucl. Mater., 438, (2013), S1187–S1191, pdf.
Assessment of cleaning methods for first mirrors tested in JET for ITER
D. Ivanova, A. Widdowson, J. Likonen, L. Marot, S. Koivuranta, J.P. Coad, M. Rubel, P. Petersson, G. De Temmerman, JET-EFDA Contributors
J. Nucl. Mater, 438, (2013), S1241–S1244, pdf.
Can aluminium or magnesium be a surrogate for beryllium: A critical investigation of their chemistry
L. Marot, C. Linsmeier, B. Eren, L. Moser, R. Steiner, E. Meyer
Fusion Eng. Des., 88, (2013), 1718–21, pdf.
Helium effects on tungsten under fusion-relevant plasma loading conditions
G. De Temmerman, K. Bystrov, R.P. Doerner, L. Marot, G.M. Wright, K.B. Woller, D.G. Whyte, J.J. Zielinski
J. Nucl. Mater., 438, (2013), S78–S83, pdf.
Laser damage thresholds of ITER mirror materials and first results on in situ laser cleaning of stainless steel mirrors
M. Wisse, L. Marot, B. Eren, R. Steiner, D. Mathys, E. Meyer
Fusion Eng. Des., 88, (2013), 388-99, pdf.
Reduced damage threshold for tungsten using combined steady state and transient sources
T.W. Morgan, J.J. Zielinski, B.J. Hensen, H.Y. Xu, L. Marot, G. De Temmerman
J. Nucl. Mater., 438, (2013), S784–S787, pdf.
Hydrogen plasma microlithography of graphene supported on a Si/SiO2 substrate
B. Eren, Th. Glatzel, M. Kisiel, W. Fu, R. Pawlak, U. Gysin, C. Nef, L. Marot, M. Calame, Ch. Schönenberger, E. Meyer
Appl. Phys. Lett., 102, (2013), 071602, pdf.
The ITER VIS/IR Wide Angle Viewing System: Challenges and On-going R&D
J.M. Travere, M.H. Aumeunier, M. Joanny, M. Jouve, V. Martin, V. Moncada, S. Salasca, L. Marot, D. Chabaud, J.J. Fermé, F. Brémond, M. Thonnat
Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation Measurement Methods , (2012), pdf.
Thermo-mechanical analysis of ITER first mirrors and its use for the ITER equatorial visible/infrared wide angle viewing system optical design
M. Joanny, S. Salasca, M. Dapena, B. Cantone, J. M. Travère, C. Thellier, J. J. Fermé, L. Marot, O. Buravand, G. Perrollaz, and C. Zeile
Rev Sci Instrum, 83, (2012), 10E506, pdf.
The ITER Thomson scattering core LIDAR diagnostic
G.A. Naylor, R. Scannell, M. Beurskens, M.J. Walsh, I. Pastor, A.J.H. Donné, B. Snijders, W. Biel, B. Meszaros, L. Giudicotti, R. Pasqualotto and L. Marot
Journal of Instrumentation, 7, (2012), C03043, pdf.
Active control over carbon deposition on diagnostic components and in remote areas of ITER
A. Litnovsky, V. Philipps, P. Wienhold, M. Matveeva, A. Pospieszczyk, G. Sergienko, O. Schmitz, U. Samm, H. Stoschus, C. Schulz, L. Marot, A. Romanyuk, G. De Temmerman, M. Laengner, U. Breuer, A. Stärk, TEXTOR Team
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 417, (2011), 830–833, pdf.
Overview of the Second Stage in the Comprehensive Mirrors test in Jet
M. Rubel, D. Ivanova, J.P. Coad, G. De Temmerman, J. Likonen, L. Marot, A. Schmidt, A. Widdowson
Physica Scripta, T145, (2011), 014070, pdf.
Characterization of hydrocarbon and mixed layers in TEXTOR by laser induced ablation spectroscopy
N. Gierse,, S Brezinsek, T. F. Giesen, A. Huber, M. Laengner, R. Leyte-Gonzales, L. Marot, E. Meyer, S. Möller, M. Naiim-Habib, V. Philipps, A. Pospieszczyk, B. Schweer, G. Sergienko, M. Zlobinski, U. Samm and the TEXTOR team
Phys. Scr., T145, (2011),  014026, pdf.
Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER
A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, Ch. Schulz, L. Marot, V.S. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, U. Samm
Fusion Engineering and Design, 86, (2011), 1780-1783, pdf.
Nitrogen and neon retention in plasma-facing materials
M. Rubel, V. Philipps, L. Marot, P. Petersson, A. Pospieszczyk, B. Schweer
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 415, (2011), S223–S226, pdf.